Emergent Microscopy Practicals (1-3)

UM-StL Physics 4306 (2002/3/4/5)

Physics 4306, 4381, 6400, or 6490: 1-3 Credit Hours of Basics, Readings, Special Topics, or Research on
the capabilities and limitations of developing nanoworld microscopy methods. In a nutshell, this is a three-part web/lab course for future users/clients of nanomicroscopy data and other nano-technology developments, designed to fill the gap nationally for the growing group of researchers in myriad fields who need to know what to make of information provided to them by nanoworld explorers. The three original 1/3-semester modules were intended to introduce electron microscopy, materials microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy. As new modules become available e.g. on biological microscopy, light microscopy, light and electron spectroscopy, synthesis and modeling techniques, surface analysis methods and molecule pattern-amplification tools, the formal name of this course might change from Emergent Microscopy Practicals to Nanoscale Science Practicals.

Proposed boilerplate for...

Credit hours: 1.0 credit hour per module with a maximum of 3 credit hours

Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. A critical web-based/laboratory study of developing nanoworld microscopy techniques, designed for microscopy clients and future microscope operators. The course consists of three modules, each 1/3 semester in length, chosen from a possibly larger set to include (a) electron, (b) materials, and (c) scanned-probe microscopy: instrumentation, wide ranging uses, and weaknesses to avoid. Each module requires two lab visits for hands-on experience, and three sessions of structured web and e-mail interaction per week.

Initially this course will provide insight into the capabilities, challenges, application areas, and limitations of
scanning electron microscopes...

Cambridge 240 SEM specimen chamber with secondary and x-ray detectors Low-voltage electron fish-eye image of SEM specimen chamber cleaved edge of an integrated circuit

..., of
transmission electron microscopes...


part of 3D HREM series by Wentao QinHREM image down the 10-fold direction of an annealed TiMn quasicrystalHREM image of ancient SiC from a carbon-rich red-giant starHREM image of internally-partitioned carbon nanotube[100] bend extinction contour in precipitated VLSI silicon

cross-section darkfield TEM image of bottom third of a VLSI devicemulti-layer dislocation loop in integrated circuit siliconsimulated images of the 2D carbon coreflakes found in meteoritic graphite-onion starsmoke

..., and of
scanning probe microscopes...

Nanoscope III Multi-Mode Scanner with Tapping-Mode and Lateral-Force Heads

atomic force image (with lateral-force coloration) of low-friction monolayers on freshly cleaved/etched mica

atomic force image of an etched damage trail from the alpha-decay recoil of an impurity atom in mica scanning tunneling image of a gold-palladium cluster sitting on [0001] graphite atoms scanning tunneling image with lateral displacement coloration of a credit card hologram

...from the point of view of someone interested in assessing the relevance of these techniques, or observations made with these techniques, to their own research. The strategy is to qualify participants to serve as informed members of interdisciplinary research teams whose activities depend on information provided by such tools. It will also serve as excellent preparation should you decide to try operating instruments of this sort on your own downstream.

Primary (1/3)-semester modules will likely cover (a) electron microscopy in general, (b) microscopy of materials, and (c) scanning probe microscopy in general. We would like to eventually see the choices for the three modules expand, to cover for example biological microscopy, LASER confocal microscopy, dynamic (imaging) secondary ion mass spectrometry, forensic and environmental microscopy, and other emerging techniques for exploring the nanoworld one piece at a time. All modules will in broad strokes cover: (i) specimens they work on, (ii) instrumentation they require, (iii) data they generate, (iv) and what to look for in the data to determine what it might, or might not, mean.

To be more specific about the first 3 modules above, electron microscopy practicals cover specimen requirements for TEM and SEM, instrument features (electron guns, lenses, detectors, vacuum systems, SEM and TEM optics), types of data generated (e.g. transmitted, backscattered, secondary electron images, EDS and EELS spectra), and questions crucial to determining what the observations may or may not mean (e.g. calibrations, resolution, sampling statistics); materials microscopy practicals cover specimen types, crystallography, and XTEM prep, instrumentation features (e.g. control of the scattering experiment with specimen tilt, and the range of beam angles and energies), types of data accessible (e.g. diffraction contrast, darkfield / weakbeam / HREM imaging, selected-area / convergent-beam diffraction), and interpretation (e.g. contrast transfer, and the strong NO's of diffraction analysis); scanning probe microscopy practicals cover specimen requirements for tunneling and atomic force (e.g. flatness, size, conductivity), instrument features (tunnelling, force, tapping-mode, and possibly optical feedback loops, tips and cantilevers, time-domain noise, air / vacuum / fluid-cell issues), data types (e.g. topography, lateral force, and conductivity maps, band structure measurements), and what questions to ask before believing them. Each of these will be presented with help from application examples in a long laundry-list of fields (materials, metallurgy, particulates, organism / tissue / cell / molecular biology, catalysis, forensics, electronics, thin films, etc.)

This course will be designed to exploit the scheduling flexibility of web-based interactions and simulations, and to minimize the number of laboratory visits for off-campus participants (faculty as well as students). Experts from more than one area university and industry, and perhaps some from outside of the region, will likely help out. Students likewise may hail from more than one port, especially if NSF funding for curriculum development, in collaboration with researchers in environmental engineering at Washington U. and at UM campuses across the state, materializes in the Fall.

Physics 306 will also be designed to foster peer-instruction, so that the perspective of all participants in the course contributes to the experience of everyone, making it a useful exercise (in the one-room school-house sense) for participants with a wide range of backgrounds. To facilitate this interaction, one can expect perhaps three web-interaction deadlines per week: For example, the weekly assignment may be sent out by midnight on Sunday night. Student participants appointed that week as "discussion leaders" must submit questions about the assignment by midnight Tuesday night. Responses to the questions by all students will be due by Thursday night. Individual assignment results for the week will then be due in Sunday night, at which time the cycle begins to repeat.

You can register directly for Physics 306 (see What's New above). If this is not an option, you might instead register for three hours of Physics 381, provided you check with the course organizer (pfraundorf@umsl.edu) with a note first about your background and interests.

Questions these modules might help you answer...
Some views from asmall...
Slippery monolayers on mica after an HF dip
Etched trail of a Uranium atom recoiling from alpha decay
Carbon atoms amid leaves in a very dark storm
Computer chip on a path to the new student center
Platinum atoms on graphite in the St. Louis morning sun


The following are excerpts from our TEM course home page, not yet adapted to the Emergent Microscopy Practicals course itself.


You might instead think of this as a course in Trans-nano Electron-assisted self-Miniaturization. A web-quiz on lattice and reciprocal lattice indexing can be found here.

This course is geared towards training students to effectively use a TEM and its various accoutrements for the analysis of electron scattering and x-ray generation by specimens. The theory part will cover the basic physics of Transmission Electron Microscopy, so that information obtainable from specimens is understood. The lab part deals with operation of such instruments, including a computer-controlled Hitachi H600 TEM and an atomic-resolution Philips EM430 SuperTwin AEM in our lab. Some prior experience with electron microscopes (e.g. via the scanning electron microscope, offered in the fall) is recommended.

To take the course, apply to enroll by e-mail or in person with the course instructors. The first class meeting will likely be from 9am to 11am on Saturday, August 28, 1999 in Molecular 101. Stop in to participate in the discussion if for no other reason!

The course will will be taught primarily by Prof. Jimmy Liu at Monsanto (before that John Cowley's group at Arizona State University). We have two operating TEM's (including a million dollar instrument under $30K/yr service contract which can resolve atoms) available for the course, as well as two SEM's, and some scanning probe microscopes in a triple bi-story building designed for such instruments from the ground up.

precipitate lattice in VLSI silicon with an 11 picometer spacing mismatch

New, Answer What?, Local Pages, External Links, More Books, OverView, HomeWork,

What's New?

Questions this course might help you answer...

AnySpeed Engineering Complex ColorMath Information Physics NanoWorld Explorations Reciprocal World Silicon River StarDust in the Lab Web Puzzlers

Atomic Physics Lab Center for Molecular Electronics Center for NeuroDynamics Physics & Astronomy Scanned Tip and Electron Image Lab

Some local resources of possible interest: Try focussing a high-res electron microscope image on-line! deBroglie's electrons and some interesting TEM facts. Three abstracts for the Winter 1998 AAPT Conference. An applet for solving constant acceleration problems at any speed. Does making a hotdog require 50 nanoseconds of life's power stream? Start relativity with the metric equation instead of Lorentz transforms!. Is statistical physics a dead subject, or is there another paradigm change afoot? What other resources might help you? E-mail suggestions to pfraundorf@umsl.edu. At UM-StLouis see also: a1toc, cme, i-fzx, phys&astr, programs, stei-lab, & wuzzlers. Some current and previous courses: p111, p112, p231, p307, p308, p309, p325, p341, p400. Cite/Link: http://newton.umsl.edu/~philf/p111f97s.html This release dated 25 Aug 1997 (Copyright by Phil Fraundorf 1988-1997)

A few of the many resources elsewhere on the web:
Teaching/Learning Materials: Scanning Electron Microscopy Stuff at Iowa State University. Introduction to SEM at Dartmouth. Operating Instructions for various scope types at University of Minnesota's CIE Characterization Facility. What are electron microscopes, at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. American University Electron Microscopy Lecture Notes. George Phillips' Diffraction/Scattering Notes & Teaching Article Links. Biozentrum tutorials in Basel on practical light and electron microscopy. Nanoworld notes from the University of Queensland, Australia. Allen Sampson's Analyticus Pandectes and Microscellaneousities.
Some colorized images The MicroAngela (Tina Carvalho) gallery at University of Hawaii (Manoa). Dennis Kunkel's and David Scharf's false colored images. The David Scharf poster set at Microscopy Today. Dennis Kunkel's watermarked bug mugs, also at UH. Some red-green 3D images for those who can't wait for interactive-microscopial virtualtinycity.
Labs & Links: MicroWorld Resources & News Microscopy Link List Our Scanned Tip and Electron Image Lab Link List. Scott Miller's electron microscopy lab page at UM-Rolla. Page on Lehigh Microscopy Short Courses. San Joaquin Delta College Microscopy Program Home Page. University of Oklahoma's Virtual Library on Microscopy.
Other Stuff: Frank Potter's Science Gems. Kenny Felder's Math and Physics Help pages. Univ. Oregon Student Physics Problems Page What is d^3x/dt^3? Check sci.physics' Frequently Asked Questions. Contemporary Physics Education Project's Particle Adventure. Other physics education links that may be of interest include those at: physlink, yahoo, quantum, c3p, & tiptop...

  • Press below for Alta-Vista's Dynamic Link-Lists on these topics...

    Some Suggested Supplementary Reading

    ...on the subject matter of this course...

  • Enrique Gonzalez-Velasco - Fourier Analysis and Boundary Value Problems (Academic Press, San Diego CA, 1995).
  • A. Bruce Carlson - Communication Systems - an intro to signals & noise in electrical communication (McGraw-Hill, NY, 1986).
  • Gerald Folland - Fourier Analysis and its Applications (Wadsworth & Brooks, Pacific Grove CA, 1992).
  • John M. Cowley - Diffraction Physics (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981).
  • Kevin Cowtan - Book of Fourier.
  • John C. H. Spence - Experimental High-Resolution Electron Microscopy (Oxford University Press, Oxford 1988).

    ...tools that may prove useful...

  • The Web
  • MathCAD, Mathematica, Maple.
  • Numerical Recipes by Press, Teukolsky, Vetterling, and Flannery (Cambridge U. Press, 1988, 1992).

    ...on subjects of more general interest...

  • Galileo Galilei - Dialog Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632, translated by Stillman Drake, UC Press, 1962)
  • Roman Vinokur - The science of the jump shot: Kinematics on the basketball court, Quantum (Jan/Feb 1993) 46-50.
  • McBeath et. al. - How baseball outfielders determine where to run to catch fly balls, Science 268 (28 April 1995) 569-573.
  • Larry Gonick & Art Huffman, The Cartoon Guide to Physics (HarperPerennial, NY, 199_).
  • Larry Gonick & Woollcott Smith, The Cartoon Guide to Statistics (HarperPerennial, NY, 1993).
  • Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd edition (U. of Chicago Press, Chicago IL, 1970)
  • Joel A. Barker, The Business of Paradigms (ILI Press, Lake Elmo MN, 1985)
  • K. Eric Drexler, Engines of Creation (Anchor Doubleday, New York NY, 1986)
  • Stephen W. Hawking - A Brief History of Time
  • Jearl Walker, Flying Circus of Physics (John Wiley & Sons, 1975)
  • Michio Kaku, HyperSpace (Oxford University Press, 1994)
  • James Gleick, Chaos: Making a New Science (Penguin Books, 1987)
  • Stuart Kauffman, At Home in the Universe (Oxford University Press, 1995)
  • Kip S. Thorne, Black Holes & Time Warps (W. W. Norton & Co., 1994)
  • Mark Slouka, War of the Worlds (BasicBooks, 1995)
  • Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene (Oxford University Press, 1976)

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